INDIA 2018

Best of Germany 2014 - Mining Equipment and Mining Technology

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0 0 /INDIA 2018 lion mt, most of which, occur in Tamilnadu. Other states where lignite deposits have been located are Rajasthan, Gujarat, Kerala, Jammu and Kashmir and Union Territory of Pondicherry. Coal Resources India ranks second amongst the coal pro- ducing countries of the world in terms of annual coal production. Of the 315 billion mt of Indian coal resources up to a depth of 1,200 m, about 143 billion mt are con- sidered proven. This constitutes about 9% of the world proved coal resources. When India gained its independence in 1947, the coal production was nearly 30 million mt/y and the coal mining oper- ations were primarily private. By 1972, production increased to 72 million mt/y. The entire Indian coal industry was nation- alized during FY1972-1973 and massive investments were made by the Government of India to the basic infrastructure sector. Mining depths in Indian coalfields are quite shallow, barring a few mines in Jharia and Raniganj coalfields. Major share of coal resources lies at a depth of less than 300 m. About 87% of coal resources lie within the depth range of 600 m. However, in most of the coalfields, exploration work beyond 600 m depth has not been completed. It is expected that the resource figures will improve consider- ably, with increased depth of exploration. Deposit characteristics vary widely from coalfield to coalfield. In some areas like Jharia and Raniganj coalfields, high concentration of super imposed seams (as much as 40 in number) pose great challenge to mining operations. Presence of a large number of thick seams, though a blessing for open cast mining, is again a major underground mining problem. Reserves in steeply inclined seams are, however, only marginal. Geological inconsistencies like faults, folds, washouts etc, common in most of the coalfields, tend to reduce the mining potential of deposits. Intrusions such as dykes and sills often lead to operational problems and quality deterioration. Nearly all Indian Coal seams are prone to spontaneous heating. The incu- bation period varies widely from two to 12 months. However, compared to gas emission in other parts of the world, the coal seams in India are less gassy. Indian coals in general have a high ash content when compared to the bituminous coals found in the U.S. and Australia. Despite this, Indian coals in general have a low sulphur content and low chlorine content. The exploration database, created so far, is adequate for preparation of a long- term perspective plan for mining of coal in the country. Coal deposits in India are confined to eastern, southern and central parts of the country, consisting of 27 major coalfields. The shares of overall coal resources of the different Indian states are: Chhattisgarh 18% Jharkhand 26% Madhya Pradesh 9% Telangana 7% Odisha 25% West Bengal 10% The remaining balance of coal resourc- es is distributed over Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya and Nagaland. Conclusion India's mining sector has grown at a slower rate compared to GDP, resulting in decrease in contribution of mining sector to India's GDP from 1.3% in 2002 to just 1.0% in 2012. With current growth rate, India will require 160 million mt of iron ore import (10% of global seaborne), 300 million mt of thermal coal import (25% of global seaborne trade) and 70 million mt of met coal import (20% of global seaborne) in 2025. This will create uncer- tainty due to high dependence on imports, with possible supply shortages depending on global situation. Mining involves digging of soil and going down to hundreds (sometimes thou- sands) of feet deep below the ground level. The annual growth in the mining sector in India has been varying from 3% to 8%. Any effort to have abnormal/ unusual growth may bring environmental issues, besides causing safety hazards to men and material engaged in mines. The purpose of this factual statement is to highlight that there is a limit to expect growth in the mining sector. The projections being worked to bring the country's coal production level to 1,000 mt by 2018/2019 mean a required annual growth rate of 18% has to be achieved. Lot is to be done to achieve this very high rate. Going by the country's projection for the growth rate of 8% in GDP, it would be a good achievement if the coal sector grows annually by 12% in a consistent manner. This can be done by opening many large coal projects and make them operational in a shortest possible time. The aim should be to make the country self sufficient in coal. Opening the coal sector fully for commercial mining, to private investors to compete with CIL, is the key and answer for the country to accomplish self sufficiency in coal. The apex court's decision should act as an opportunity for the government to have a full review of the coal sector policy and come up with appropriate coal reforms. Therefore, it is now the time to think, address and find the right way forward to resolve the challenges that have emerged from the cancellation of allotment of coal blocks. Indian Coal Industry – An Overview Coal Reserves in India as on January 4, 2017 (millions of mt) Type of Coal Proved Indicated Inferred Total Prime Coking 004,614.0 000,699.0 0 005,313.0 Medium Coking 013,501.0 012,133.0 001,879.0 027,513.0 Semi Coking 000,519.0 000,995.0 000,193.0 001,708.0 Non Coking 124,423.0 125,485.0 030,706.0 280,615.0 Tertiary Coal 000,594.0 000,099.0 000,895.0 001,588.0 Total 143,058.0 139,311.0 032,779.0 315,149.0 Lignite 006,540.7 026,014.4 012,143.0 044,698.1 Import of Coal to India in 2016-2017 Type of Coal Quantity (mt) Coking 041.6 Non-Coking 149.3 Total 191.0 Source Country-wise Import of Coal to India During 2016-17 Country Quantity (mt) % Share Indonesia 091 048 Australia 047 024 South Africa 034 018 USA 005 003 Russia 004 002 Others 010 005 Total 204 100

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