INDA 2017

Best of Germany 2014 - Mining Equipment and Mining Technology

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0 0 INDIA 2017 5 Coal Mining in India Geology and Reserves of Indian Coal Coal is the most abundant fossil fuel resource in the country. India, currently, stands fifth in terms of total World Coal Resources, whereas it is third from the point of view of identified reserves. The coal occurrences in India are mainly distributed along the present day river valleys i.e. Damodar Valley, Sone-Mahanadi Valley, Pench-Kanhan Valley, Wardha-Godavari Valley etc. There are 69 major coalfields located in the peninsular India besides, 17 located in the north-eastern region. The bulk of the coal reserves are confined to the south-eastern quadrant of the country in West Bengal, Jharkand, Orissa, Chattisgarh & Madhya Pradesh. The coal reserves of India have been estimated by the Geological Survey of India at 308.8 billion tonnes–up to the depth of 1200m, as on 01.04.2016. Out of 308 bt of coal reserves "Prime" coking coal are 5.3 bt, Medium & Semi-coking coals are 27.4 bt & 1.70 bt and Non-coking coals 274.4 bt. Most of these resources occur in Gondwanas and the balance in the Tertiary formations. Currently, lignite reserves in the country have been estimated at around 44.60 billion tonnes, most of which, occur in Tamilnadu. Other states where lignite deposits have been located are Rajasthan, Gujarat, Kerala, Jammu and Kashmir and Union Territory of Pondicherry. Basically, Indian coals have high mineral matter (ash) content unlike Pennsylvanian and Carboniferous coals of America and Europe respectively. Coal Resources India ranks third amongst the coal producing countries of the world in terms of annual coal production. However, in respect of coal resourc- es, it is endowed with less than one % of world coal resources. Of the 308.8 billion tonnes of Indian coal resources up to a depth of 1200 metres, about 277.2 billion tonnes fall under proved or confirmed cat- egory. This constitutes about six % of the world proved coal resources. When India gained its independence in 1947, the coal produc- tion was nearly 30 mt per year and the coal mining operation was primarily in the private sector. Till 1971-1973 the coal mining opera- tion remained primarily in the private sector and the production had come up to a level of nearly 72 mtpa only. The entire coal industry in India was nationalised during 1972-1973 and then on massive investments were made by the Government of India in this basic infra- structure sector. India now ranks as the third largest coal producer of the World next only to China and USA. Mining depths in Indian coalfields are quite shallow, barring a few mines in Jharia and Raniganj coalfields. Major share of coal resources lies at a depth of less than 300 metres. About 87 % of coal resources lie within the depth range of 600 metres. However, in most of the coalfields, exploration work beyond 600 metres depth is yet to be taken up. It is expected that the resource figures will improve considerably, with increased depth of exploration. Deposit characteristics vary widely from coalfield to coalfield. In some areas like Jharia and Raniganj coalfields, high concentration of super imposed seams (as much as 40 in number) pose great challenge to mining operations. Presence of a large number of thick seams, though a blessing for open cast mining, is again a major underground mining problem. Reserves in steeply inclined seams are, however, only marginal. Geological inconsistencies like faults, folds, washouts etc, com- mon in most of the coalfields, tend to reduce the mining potential of deposits. Intrusions such as dykes and sills often lead to operational problems and quality deterioration. Nearly all Indian Coal seams are prone to spontaneous heating. The incubation period varies widely from 2 to 12 months. However, compared to gas emission in other parts of the world, the coal seams in India are less gassy. Due to the very nature of deposition, Indian coals, in general, are of inferior quality owing to high ash %age, when compared with coal available in the international trade arena. Despite this, Indian coals in general merit better environment friendly use because of: • Low sulphur content, • Low chlorine content, and • Low toxic trace elements. Additional advantages for industrial use: • High ash fusion temperature, • Low iron content, and • Refractory nature of ash. The exploration database, created so far, is adequate for prepara - tion of a long-term perspective plan for mining of coal in the country. Coal deposits in India are confined to eastern, southern and cen- tral parts of the country, consisting of 27 major coalfields. The shares of overall coal resources of different States 94.86% are in: Chhattisgarh 18.14% Jharkhand 26.28% Madhya Pradesh 8.71% Telangana 6.93% Odisha 24.57% West Bengal 10.21% Balance share of coal reserves is distributed over Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya and Nagaland. Quality wise resource is 11.1% Coking Coal and 88.9% Non- Coking Coal. Out of Total Non-Coking Coal the • superior grades A, B and C with Ash content 24% or less, • inferior grades with ash content between 24%–45%. Jharia Coalfield is the main source of prime coking coal. Superior grade non-coking coals are generally available in Raniganj Coalfield of West Bengal, Central India Coalfield of Madhya Pradesh and Talcher Coalfields of Orissa. The ash of Indian coal is of inherent nature and has high presence of near gravity material (NGM). This makes washing of Indian coal rather difficult. Some of the positive features of Indian Coal are low sulphur, low toxic elements and high ash fusion temperature. Coal Industry in India Coal India is the largest public sector company, about 84.28% of the total coal production in the country comes from the collieries of Coal India Ltd (CIL). It has eight subsidiaries: Bharat Coking Coal Ltd., Central Coalfields Ltd., Eastern Coalfields Ltd., Western Coalfields Ltd., South Eastern Coalfields Ltd., Northern Coalfields Ltd., Mahanadi Coalfields Ltd., and Central Mine Planning & Design Institute Ltd. Indian Coal Industry — An Overview By Rajesh Nath, managing director – VDMA India and Ajmal Fawad, business analyst – VDMA India Coal Reserves in India (Mt, April 1, 2016) Type of Coal Proved Indicated Inferred Total Prime Coking 00 4,614.0 000, 699.0 0 00 5,313.0 Medium Coking 0 13,389.0 0 12,114.0 0 1,879.0 0 27,382.0 Semi Coking 000, 482.0 00 1,004.0 00, 222.0 00 1,708.0 Non-Coking 119,602.0 125,335.0 29,462.0 274,398.0 Tertiary Coal 000, 594.0 000,0 99.0 00, 799.0 00 1,493.0 Total 138,087.0 139,151.0 31,564.0 308,802.0 Lignite 00 6,182.4 0 26,372.7 12,039.4 0 44,594.5 Ajmal Fawad Rajesh Nath

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